Why banks die often in Nigeria – NDIC

No fewer than 425 financial institutions have been liquidated in three decades, the Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation, NDIC, has revealed.

The corporation’s Assistant Director, Insurance and Surveillance Department, Mr. John Abiodun told the Finance Correspondents Association of Nigeria Forum in Abuja that the casualty figure was recorded since 1988.

A breakdown of the 425 liquidated banks showed that 51 of them are Deposit Money Banks, 325 Micro Finance Banks and 51 Primary Mortgage Banks.

Abiodun said through efficient and diligent liquidation activities, the corporation has successfully paid in full the deposits of customers of 18 banks that were both insured and uninsured.

He also said payments have been put on hold to depositors of Fortune International Bank, Triumph Bank and Peak Merchant Bank due to litigation challenging the revocation of their operating licence.

He lamented that the effectiveness of NDIC’s efforts in failure resolution has been hampered by a number of challenges, especially delays in revocation of the licenses of terminally distressed banks, depositor and creditor apathy and ignorance, delay in filing claims, and recovery of debts owed the failed banks.

He said NDIC is also concerned about the legal actions of owners of closed banks; protracted litigations; disposal of low-quality physical assets of the closed banks and provision of timely liquidity support.

Abiodun gave some of the causes of bank failure to include insider abuse, abusive ownership and weak board of directors, weak corporate governance, poor risk management process, inadequate capital, weak regulatory and supervisory measures, as well as economic and political factors.

“Once a bank’s license is revoked, NDIC takes over for liquidation.”

Abiodun explains that before the corporation liquidates a bank, it looks out for deficiencies, also known as early warning signals that raises red flags.

Some of the early warning signals, according to him, are aggressive growth and excessive competition for deposits, shareholder’s squabbles, frequent changes in management and ownership, change in major business lines.

Others are failure to meet the minimum Capital Adequacy Ratio of 10 percent, rising non-performing loans to total credit ratio of above five percent, failure to meet the prevailing minimum liquidity ratio of 30 percent, high total expense to total income ratio and high incidences of fraud.

Open chat